There have been two official investigations into the WTC collapses. The first was conducted by FEMA (the Federal Emergency Management Agency) with assistance from the American Society of Civil Engineers (ACSE). The second was conducted by NIST (the National Institute of Standards and Technology).
NIST had a much larger budget and spent over three years doing its investigation, but it started almost a year after the event. NIST was hampered by the same lack of access to physical evidence as the FEMA investigation, but probably more so, given their much later start and how much of the debris and WTC steel had been removed and shipped out of the country.
On August 21, 2002, with funding from the U.S. Congress through FEMA, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) announced its building and fire safety investigation of the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster that occurred on September 11, 2001. The NIST WTC Investigation was conducted under the authority of the National Construction Safety Team Act.
In response to the WTC tragedy, the National Institute of Standards and Technology conducted a 3-year building and fire safety investigation to study the factors contributing to the probable cause (or causes) of post-impact collapse of the WTC Towers (WTC 1 and 2) and WTC 7.
NIST’s World Trade Center FAQ
A Reply to the National Institute for Standards and Technology’s Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
NIST Pages Index
Welcome to the 911 Dataset Project
“6. What caused the collapses of WTC 1 and WTC 2?
Based on its comprehensive investigation, NIST concluded that the WTC towers collapsed because: (1) the impact of the planes severed and damaged support columns, dislodged fireproofing insulation coating the steel floor trusses and steel columns, and widely dispersed jet fuel over multiple floors; and (2) the subsequent unusually large number of jet-fuel ignited multi-floor fires (which reached temperatures as high as 1,000 degrees Celsius, or 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit) significantly weakened the floors and columns with dislodged fireproofing to the point where floors sagged and pulled inward on the perimeter columns. This led to the inward bowing of the perimeter columns and failure of the south face of WTC 1 and the east face of WTC 2, initiating the collapse of each of the towers. Both photographic and video evidence—as well as accounts from the New York City Police Department aviation unit during a half-hour period prior to collapse—support this sequence for each tower.”
NIST REPORT OF THE 3 COLLAPSES
NIST: FINAL REPORT on Collapse of World Trade Center Towers
On December 1, 2005. NIST released its final report on the collapse of the WTC Towers.
NIST: FINAL REPORT on Collapse of World Trade Center Building 7
On November 25, 2008. NIST released its final report on the collapse of WTC 7.
TOWERS 1 & 2:
“NIST estimated the elapsed times for the first exterior panels to strike the ground after the collapse initiated in each of the towers to be approximately 11 seconds for WTC 1 and approximately 9 seconds for WTC 2. These elapsed times were based on: (1) precise timing of the initiation of collapse from video evidence, and (2) ground motion (seismic) signals recorded at Palisades, N.Y., that also were precisely time-calibrated for wave transmission times from lower Manhattan (see NCSTAR 1-5A). [NIST 2006]”
“to the tremendous energy released by the falling building mass, the building section above came down essentially in free fall, as seen in videos.”
“The seismic spikes for the collapse of the WTC towers are the result of debris from the collapsing towers impacting the ground. The spikes began approximately 10 seconds after the times for the start of each building’s collapse and continued for approximately 15 seconds. There were no seismic signals that occurred prior to the initiation of the collapse of either tower. The seismic record contains no evidence that would indicate explosions occurring prior to the collapse of the towers.”
World Trade Center Twin Towers: Constant Acceleration
“The measurements have indicated that Tower one collapsed in about 11 seconds and Tower two collapsed in about 9 seconds…..this is essentially the rate at which free fall would happen.” – Shyam Sunder NIST
“At 9:58:59, the South Tower collapsed in ten seconds, killing all civilians and emergency personnel inside, as well a number of individuals-both first responders and civilians-in the concourse, in the Marriott, and on neighboring streets. The building collapsed into itself, causing a ferocious windstorm and creating a massive debris cloud. The Marriott hotel suffered significant damage as a result of the collapse of the South Tower.” 9/11 Commission Report Page 156
“National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) federal building and fire safety investigation of the World Trade Center disaster, answers to frequently asked questions”, Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology, August 30, 2006. [Online]. Available: NIST, [Accessed March 17, 2008] (#8)
WTC 7 (BUILDING 7)
On November 25, 2008. NIST released its final report on the collapse of WTC 7.
NIST Releases Final WTC 7 Investigation Report
NIST WTC 7 REPORT
“NIST contention is that the building collapse progressed from the penthouse out as columns were weakened by the fires. The slow sinking of the penthouses, indicating the internal collapse of the building behind the visible north wall, took 8.2 seconds according to a NIST preliminary report. Seismograph trace of the collapse of WTC 7 indicates that parts of the building were hitting the ground for 18 seconds. This means the collapse took at least 18 seconds, of which only the last approximately 15 seconds are visible in videos: 8 seconds for the penthouses and 7 seconds for the north wall to come down.”
NIST Video: Why the Building (WTC7) Fell
NIST has made a 3 minute video on the collapse of WTC 7. They have broken down 1,000’s of pages of research into 3 minutes for the American people.
“This was the first known instance of the total collapse of a tall building primarily due to fires” NIST 2008 (Page 37)
“The collapse of WTC 7 was primarily due to fires.” – Shyam Sunder
“RESEARCHED ONLY THE INITIATION OF THE COLLAPSES”
When NIST was brought into to investigate why the three towers collapsed, for some reason they only studied the initiation of the collapses. Everything that happened after the collapse was irrelevant to their conclusion. NIST didn’t think it was important to investigate how the top 1/4 of a building can totally crush and pulverize the structurally sound bottom 3/4. We are talking about the worst structural collapse ever and NIST only looked into the initiation of the collapses.
The Role of Metallurgy in the NIST Investigation of the World Trade Center Towers Collapse
“Based on the metallurgical investigation of the steel recovered from the WTC collapse site, it was determined that the mechanical properties and chemistry of the steels used in the World Trade Center towers were consistent with the specifications called for in the building plans.”
“The charge to the investigation team comprised four major parts.
“Determine why and how WTC 1 and WTC 2 collapsed following the initial impacts of the aircraft and why and how WTC 7 collapsed.
Determine why the injuries and fatalities were high or low depending on location including all technical aspects of fire protection, occupant behavior, evacuation, and emergency response.
Determine what procedures and practices were used in the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of WTC 1, 2, and 7.
Identify, as specifically as possible, areas in current building and fire codes, standards, and practices that warrant revision.””
“For the initial storing of the structural steel during the clean-up effort of the World Trade Center site and for their assistance and patience during the review, abatement, and final removal of pieces of interest to the investigation we thank Blanford Land Development Corporation, Hugo Neu Schnitzer, Inc., and Metal Management, Inc. ”
“First, in the absence of structural and insulation damage, a conventional fire substantially similar to or less intense than the fires encountered on September 11, 2001 likely would not have led to the collapse of a WTC tower. Second, the towers likely would not have collapsed under the combined effects of aircraft impact and the subsequent multi-floor fires encountered on September 11, 2001 if the insulation had not been widely dislodged or had been only minimally dislodged by aircraft impact. The existing thermal insulation, had it not been stripped off in the impact, would have been sufficient to keep the steel temperatures low enough to minimize deformation. Also, the investigation team neither found nor invoked any extraordinary events, beyond the terrorist attack that damaged the structure and removed the insulation, that led to the collapse of the towers.”
“31. Why didn’t NIST fully model the collapse initiation and propagation of the WTC towers?
The first objective of the NIST WTC investigation included determining why and how WTC 1 and WTC 2 collapsed following the initial impacts of the aircraft (see NIST NCSTAR 1). Determining the sequence of events leading up to collapse initiation was critical to fulfilling this objective. Once the collapse had begun, the propagation of the collapse was readily explained without the same complexity of modeling.”
“The focus of the investigation was on the sequence of events from the instant of aircraft impact to the initiation of collapse for each tower. For brevity in this report, this sequence is referred to as the ‘probably collapse sequence,’ although it does not actually include the structural behavior of the tower after the conditions for collapse initiation were reached and collapse became inevitable.” NIST, p. 82
“The scarcity of physical evidence that is typically available in place for reconstruction of a disaster led to the following approach …”
– NIST NCSTAR 1, WTC Final Report (p. xxxvi)
“We are unable to provide a full explanation of the total collapse.” ~ NIST
“no evidence the type of joining methods, materials, or welding procedures used was improper NIST 1-3 p.99
“recovered bolts were stronger than typical.” NIST 1-2 p.133
“All four test specimens sustained the maximum design load for approximately 2 hours without collapsing” NIST, p. 143
NIST concluded that the WTC towers collapsed because:
(1) the impact of the planes severed and damaged support columns, dislodged fireproofing insulation coating the steel floor trusses and steel columns, and widely dispersed jet fuel over multiple floors; and
(2) the subsequent unusually large jet-fuel ignited multi-floor fires (which reached temperatures as high as 1,000 degrees Celsius) significantly weakened the floors and columns with dislodged fireproofing to the point where floors sagged and pulled inward on the perimeter columns. This led to the inward bowing of the perimeter columns and failure of the south face of WTC 1 and the east face of WTC 2, initiating the collapse of each of the
– NIST WTC FAQ (question 2)
“WTC 2 displayed significant reserve capacity, as evidenced by a post-impact rooftop sway that was more than one-third of that under the hurricane force winds for which the building was designed. The oscillation period of this swaying was nearly equal to that calculated for the undamaged structure. ” – NIST NCSTAR 1, WTC Final Report (p. 182)
NO CONTROLLED DEMOLITION
“NIST’s findings also do not support the “controlled demolition” theory since there is conclusive evidence that: the collapse was initiated in the impact and fire floors of the WTC towers and nowhere else […]
Video evidence also showed unambiguously that the collapse progressed from the top to the bottom, and there was no evidence (collected by NIST, or by the New York Police Department, the Port Authority Police Department or the Fire Department of New York) of any blast or explosions in the region below the impact and fire floors as the top building sections (including and above the 98th floor in WTC 1 and the 82nd floor in WTC 2) began their downward movement upon collapse initiation.
In summary, NIST found no corroborating evidence for alternative hypotheses suggesting that the WTC towers were brought down by controlled demolition using explosives planted prior to Sept. 11, 2001.”
– NIST WTC FAQ (question 2)
NIST ADMITS NO PANCAKE COLLAPSE
“8. Why didn’t NIST consider a “controlled demolition” hypothesis with matching computer modeling and explanation like it did for the “pancake theory” hypothesis?
NIST’s findings do not support the “pancake theory” of collapse, which is premised on a progressive failure of the floor systems in the WTC towers (the composite floor system—that connected the core columns and the perimeter columns—consisted of a grid of steel “trusses” integrated with a concrete slab; see diagram).”
Shyam Sunder Admits There Was No Pancake Effect
“NIST’s findings do not support the “pancake theory” of collapse, which is premised on a progressive failure of the floor systems in the WTC towers… Thus, the floors did not fail progressively to cause a pancaking phenomenon”. Sunder, W. Grosshandler, H. S. Lew, et al.
WTC – collapse revised
“and we did not see any evidence of pancaking in the videos or photographs we have.” – Shyam Sunder NIST
Reply to NIST
“NIST lead investigator Shyam Sunder stated, “Those clouds of dust may create the impression of a controlled demolition but it is the floor pancaking that leads to that perception.”
NIST Video: Why the Building (WTC7) Fell
THE EXPERTS (NIST)
Shyam Sunder – Leading NIST investigator for the federal building and fire safety investigation of the World Trade Center disaster. After years of denying free fall, Sunder admits that WTC 7 did collapse at free fall acceleration.
John Gross — one of the lead engineers for the flawed NIST report on why the WTC buildings collapsed; denies existence of molten steel at the WTC.
SAME INDIVIDUALS FOR INVESTIGATING TERROR ATTACKS
Why do the same five or so individuals turn up in investigations relating to terrorist attacks, when, according to the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), there are 1.5 million engineers in the US?
“Why do the same five or so individuals turn up in investigations relating to terrorist attacks, when, according to the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), there are 1.5 million engineers in the US?
The authors of the official report on the Murrah Federal building – Gene Corley, Charles Thornton, Paul Mlaker, and Mete Sozen – were all among the initial team of the ASCE WTC investigation. Several of these individuals have strong connections to industries that benefited from the attack, such as armaments makers and oil and gas producers.”
Same Conspiracy Cover-Up Pros for 9/11 & OK City
“And yet the authors of the official report on the Murrah Federal Building – Gene Corley, Charles Thornton, Paul Mlaker, and Mete Sozen – were all among the initial team of the American Society of Civil Engineers’ 9/11 investigation.”
“As if that is not bad enough, the same handful of people who came up with the unscientific “pancake collapse” theory for the Twin Towers while working for FEMA then moved over to spread unscientific theories for NIST:”
* FEMA Chapter 1 authors:
* Therese McAllister: co-write NIST report 1-6 and 1-7
* John Gross: co-wrote NIST report 1-6 and 1-7
* Ronald Hamburger: NIST contributor
* FEMA Chapter 2 authors:
* Ronald Hamburger: see above
* William Baker: NIST contributor, Freedom Tower
* Harold Nelson: co-wrote NIST report 1-5 and 1-7
* FEMA Chapter 5 authors (WTC7):
* Ramon Gilsanz: co-wrote NIST report 1-6F
* Harold Nelson: see above
James Quintiere, Ph.D., former Chief of the Fire Science Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), has called for an independent review of NIST’s investigation into the collapses of the World Trade Center Towers on 9/11.
James G. Quintiere, The John L. Bryan Professor of Fire Protection Engineering University of Maryland critiques the NIST report
Frank A. DeMartini
New Scientific Evidence Undermines Afghanistan War
“In NY, representing “Scientists,” Professor Niels Harrit said, “The official account put forth by NIST violates the fundamental laws of physics and chemistry.” Harrit is Prof. Emeritus at the University of Copenhagen and was lead author for a 2009 peer-reviewed study that revealed evidence of high tech explosives throughout the WTC dust.”
9/11 Theories: Expert vs. Expert
Why is Senator Maria Cantwell Shielding NIST from Investigation?
NIST REPORT QUOTES (TOWERS)
“FIRES NEVER REACHED ABOVE 600 DEGREES”
NIST has no evidence of fire temperatures in the Towers above 600 ºC
“None of the recovered steel samples showed evidence of exposure to temperatures above 600 ºC for as long as 15 min. This was based on NIST annealing studies that established the set of time and temperature conditions necessary to alter the steel microstructure.”
NIST, p. 181
“None of the recovered steel samples showed evidence of exposure to temperatures above 600 degrees C for as long as 15 minutes.” NIST, p. 180
“Examination of photographs showed that 16 of the exterior panels recovered from WTC 1 were exposed to fire prior to the building collapse. None of the nine recovered panels from within the fire floors of WTC 2 were directly exposed to fire.”
“Using metallographic analysis, NIST determined that there was no evidence that any of the samples had reached temperatures above 600 C.” – NIST NCSTAR 1, WTC Final Report (p. 90)
“Of the more than 170 areas examined on 16 perimeter column panels, only three columns had evidence that the steel reached temperatures above 250 C […]. Only two core column specimens had sufficient paint remaining to make such an analysis, and their temperatures did not reach 250 C.”
“Only three of the recovered samples of exterior panels reached temperatures in excess of 250 degrees C during the fires or after the collapse. This was based on a method developed by NIST to characterize maximum temperatures experienced by steel members through observations of paint cracking.” NIST, p. 181
“no core column examined showed temp. above 250C” NIST 1-3 6.6.2
“No conclusive evidence was found to indicate that pre-collapse fires were sever enough to have a significant effect on the microstructure that would have resulted in weakening of the steel structure.” NIST NCSTAR 1-3C, p. 235
“PUFFS OF AIR”
Numerous Squibs (mis-timed explosions) can be seen seen 20 to 40 floors ahead of the advancing “collapse”. NIST claims that they are “puffs of air” created from the pancaking floors above. But there are no pancaking floors above, they are not air but pulverized building materials, they occur precisely at the center of the building in an “open office plan”, and finally, the 160 to 200 feet per second speed of this debris suggests they could only have been propelled by explosives.
“9. Weren’t the puffs of smoke that were seen, as the collapse of each WTC tower starts, evidence of controlled demolition explosions?
No. As stated in Section 6.14.4 of NIST NCSTAR 1, the falling mass of the building compressed the air ahead of it—much like the action of a piston—forcing smoke and debris out the windows as the stories below failed sequentially. These puffs were observed at many locations as the towers collapsed. In all cases, they had the appearance of jets of gas being pushed from the building through windows or between columns on the mechanical floors. Such jets are expected since the air inside the building is compressed as the tower falls and must flow somewhere as the pressure builds. It is significant that similar “puffs” were observed numerous times on the fire floors in both towers prior to their collapses, perhaps due to falling walls or portions of a floor. Puffs from WTC 1 were even observed when WTC 2 was struck by the aircraft. These observations confirm that even minor overpressures were transmitted through the towers and forced smoke and debris from the building.”
“The sources for the pressure pulses that created the wide spread smoke and/or dust puffs observed on multiple faces of WTC2 is unknown.” – NCSTAR1-5A_chap_9-AppxC p.412
Thermite – Pressure Pulses Explained [NIST is Baffled]
NIST NCSTAR 1-3C
NIST NCSTAR 1-3C
Federal Building and Fire Safety Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster
Damage and Failure Modes of Structural Steel Components
“from the limited number of recovered steel elements, no conclusive evidence was found to indicate that pre-collapse fires were severe enough to have a significant effect on the microstructure that would have resulted in weakening of the steel structure.” NCSTAR 1-3C p. 235
“The microstructures of the steels known to have been exposed to fire, based on the pre-collapse photographic evidence … show no evidence of exposure to temperatures above 600° C for any significant time.” NCSTAR 1-3C p. 281
“NIST has documented approximately 3 percent of all perimiter columns and 1 percent of all core columns intersecting floors with pre colapse fires. Thus, the preceeding forensic analysis DOES NOT, AND CANNOT, give a picture of temperatures seen by the vast majority of perimiter and core columns” (emphasis added.)” NIST NCSTAR 1-3, p. 285.
SCREENSHOTS FROM REPORT
QUESTIONS FOR NIST
1) Where are NIST’s peer review papers of the WTC collapses?
2) Where are NIST’s dust samples? Why did they refuse to test the dust and steel for exotic accelerants/explosives? Such as Thermite.
3) Why does NIST’s refuse to release the data used for their Building 7 simulation? Claiming it would
“jeopardize public safety”. Why don’t they show the entire collapse?
4) Why did NIST fail to follow NFPA 921 Guidelines for Fire and Explosion Investigations? Where it states to test for “specifically thermite”.
5) Where is NIST’s Thermal imaging of the actual collapse of the Towers?
6) Why did NIST’s own tests fail to weaken or melt Steel similar to WTC?
7) How can NIST rule out the use of explosives when they admit to not testing for it?
8) Why has NIST changed their theories about the collapses a half dozen times?
9) Why did John Gross deny that Molten steel occurred at GZ?
10) Why did they lie about pancake theory and then admit it was wrong?
11) If “Al Qaeda” is known for using explosives in their attacks, why didn’t the FBI or NIST tested for it? (1993 Attack)
12) Why does NIST ignore the reports of explosions?
NIST NEVER TESTED FOR EXPLOSIVES (NFPA 921)
NIST AND NANO THERMITE
NIST WTC 7 REPORT
NIST ADMITS FREEFALL
THE MANY THEORIES FROM NIST